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Cole Hardware Web Redesign


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Cole Hardware Web Redesign


COLE HARDWARE

E-commerce redesign

 

 

Dave Karp opened the first Cole Hardware store in San Francisco in 1959. He wanted to create a service for the people in his community. 
 

 
 

 

"COLE HARDWARE'S PRINCIPLE AS A COMPANY IS TO PROVIDE SERVICE AND KNOWLEDGE."

Julia, Marketing Coordinator of Cole Hardware

 

 
 

Over time, they realized that people prefer to shop on the internet and they are losing revenue to online competitors such as amazon. 

But Cole Hardware is a proud community service provider and prefer to remain to help the needs of people in the community. 


OVERVIEW

MY ROLE

 

I did user interviews, research and the visual designs such as paper prototyping and wireframes. 

CUSTOMER INSIGHT
I partnered with two UX designers with strong research and interview backgrounds to collect and synthesize data to address user needs.

STRATEGY & UNDERSTANDING
I targeted current users and asked questions based on their current pain points that led to ideation and our design decision.

VISUAL DESIGN & IMPLEMENTATION
I created paper prototypes and tested them early on. With Sketch and Invision, I was able to share design ideas and iterate between user testing.
 


THE CHALLENGE

MODERN TECHNOLOGY


Users find the Cole Hardware site to be very confusing to navigate, items are impossible to find, and certain links lead to error messages.

When I talked to an employee, they said their site is mainly to serve as informative source for their community and not exactly for people to shop. But because they realize that they are losing to online competitors, they want to improve their site but not lose the 1-1 interaction they've been having with their customers for decades.
 


THE PROCESS

INTERVIEWS

 

 
 

I reached out to Cole Hardware to get a better understanding of their mission and how I can help them grow their business without changing their business model.

 Julia, Marketing Coordinator of Cole Hardware

  • Cole Hardware's principle as a company is to provide service and knowledge.
  • They value in person relationships and are loyal to their customers.
  • They realize that they are losing revenue to online stores.
  • They do not have the money or man power to hand pick items in store and ship them out to customers.
     
 
 

 

"SOMEONE TRIED TO BUY A POOL FROM US IN FLORIDA AND WE CANCELLED THEIR ORDER BECAUSE WE WOULD NEVER GET TO MEET THEM IN PERSON."

Julia, Marketing Coordinator

 

 
 


UNDERSTANDING THE USERS


Current customers

  • Life long customers didn't even know Cole Hardware had a website.
  • All customers know the owner Dave Karp personally, and remembers his famous card tricks.
  • They prefer to go to into the store to ask questions and interact with workers and get the best advice they need.
     
 
 

 

"THE STAFF HERE IS WONDERFUL. THEY ARE ALWAYS HELPFUL AND REALLY GO OUT OF THEIR WAY TO FIND EXACTLY WHAT YOU'RE LOOKING FOR."

Carol C, loyal customer for 2 years

 

 
 

PERSONA DEVELOPMENT


Thomas is the type of person that would rarely shop at Cole Hardware. Meanwhile Andy could be considered a frequent loyal customer. Cole Hardware should have an online store that can cater to both personas. 

 
 

PRIMARY PERSONA: THOMAS

A 37 year old business analyst that prefers to shop online and has no idea about hardware tools

Pain Points:

  • Overwhelmed by choices
  • Indistinct product categories
  • No gift options
 

SECONDARY PERSONA: ANDY

A 45 year old tradesman that works on-site 90% of the time and prefers to order equipment online and shipped to job site

Pain Points

  • Too little choices of specialty brands
  • Lengthy checkout process
  • Needs to be reassured of product details
 
 

THOMAS'S GIFT IDEA


Based on the interviews done with Thomas, I learned the following:

  • Thomas needs to buy a gift for his brother Charles's 40th birthday
  • Charles wants to build the legendary treehouse they've always wanted as kids
  • Thomas wants to surprise Charles with a new chainsaw
  • Thomas hopes that the chainsaw will encourage his brother to not force him to help with building

How I plan to help Thomas:

  • Thomas needs support with finding the right items
  • He needs reassurance that he is purchasing the latest and greatest item
  • Do not overwhelm Thomas with too many choices
 
 
 

COLE HARDWARE COMPETITORS


I did a competitive analysis in order to get a sense of what competitors are doing. 

Cole hardware's biggest competitor is Amazon. But they are also losing revenue to Home Depot due to their strong search options, reviews and details. 

With that information, my assumptions are that Cole Hardware can improve on their search options, adding product reviews, and having a secure checkout process to improve the experience for people such as Thomas and Andy.

 
 
 

CREATING THE USER FLOW

 
 
 

First I wanted to create a user flow in order to get a better understanding of how Thomas might navigate through the page.

Thomas can browse through the most popular items giving Thomas reassurance that he's in the right area. He can narrow down his search with reading reviews from previous buyers and add the item to cart. Unfortunately there are too many steps from start to finish, leaving Thomas flustered. 

 
 

I thought it was very important to make sure Thomas and Andy can quickly find what they were looking for with the helpful suggestions from the site.

 

Original solution: Home Page with a DIY feature in mind

Final Solution: Decided to add project pictures that may relate to what Thomas needs

 

I then created different paper prototypes to test.

I quickly learned that there were too many options for users to choose from. They weren't sure where to look for the perfect chainsaw for Charles's birthday gift.

I thought the ideas button would give inspiration to users, but it confused them instead. Users also preferred not to click on it. People mainly clicked on the project pictures because it's the biggest call-to-action button.

 
 

The next step was to figure out the most legible way for Thomas and Andy to read reviews, ratings and also see details.

Adding the modal when an item has been added to cart can reassure Thomas that the item was added so he doesn't accidentally add two. 

 
 

Next, the checkout process needs to be reassuring and secure in order for Thomas and Andy to know exactly what they're purchasing with their preference of purchasing option. 

I added a modal to allow users to choose their payment method and users liked it!

Interestingly enough, when I created the modal in my wireframes, users felt like it was abrupt, unexpected and they didn't find it secure.

 
 

The address & payments page allows Thomas and Andy to enter all their information carefully while the summary of the item and costs remain on the right hand side for them to review.

The review page allows Thomas to review his order, be reassured of the item he is purchasing, where it will be shipped, and ensure his customized gift option is in place. 
 


THE VISION

FINAL SOLUTION
 

 

Current Cole Hardware landing page

My Solution

 
 

The solution consists of a search bar that would guide Thomas and Andy straight to the item. Many items would appear but there is an option to select multiple items and compare them in order for Thomas or Andy to see the minor details and reviews in both items. They then get to add the item to cart and finish with including a gift option and reviewing their order before finalizing their purchase.
 


THE AFTERMATH

TAKEAWAYS

I learned that not all test results from paper prototypes will translate well when built as an app or web design. I also learned that it is very important to test prototypes constantly and with different people. 

 
 
 

NEXT SPRINT


I would like to incorporate more of an interactive sales approach where a Cole Hardware employee can answer questions, give advice, and choose the best items for their customers, just like how they do in person.

 
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Literator App Feature Addition


Literator App Feature Addition


 

LITERATOR

Helping teachers help kids read

 
 
 

 

Literator was created by a teacher named Michelle who was heartbroken when she realized that her students test scores were not on the rise. 

Michelle's district incorporates the F&P system - a strict curriculum with at least 30+ questions that places students on a scale from A-Z depending on their reading levels. This makes the questions difficult for teachers to memorize and utilize on the spot.

 
 

 

"I AM AN ADULT, I CAN READ,
SO I CAN TEACH IT."

Michelle, Literator CEO & Founder

 

 
 

After being constantly tested by her administrators, Michelle finally put her foot down and created Literator - an app that incorporates F&P questions, levels, and tracks students progress.

 

 
 

OVERVIEW

MY ROLE

 

I reached out to over 50+ teachers for interviews and the visual designs such as paper prototyping and wireframes. 

CUSTOMER INSIGHT
I partnered with two UX designers with strong research and interview backgrounds to collect and synthesize data to address user needs.

STRATEGY & UNDERSTANDING
I targeted current users and asked questions based on their current pain points that led to ideation and our design decision.

VISUAL DESIGN & IMPLEMENTATION
I created paper prototypes and tested them early on. With Sketch and Invision, I was able to share design ideas and iterate between user testing.

 

 
 

THE CHALLENGE

TEACHER RETENTION


Teachers prefer to use the simple method of pen and paper.
 

 

 
 

"SOME TEACHERS DON'T EVEN OPEN THEIR EMAILS; THEY THINK IT'S TOO MUCH TROUBLE."

Ms. Glick, Kindergarten teacher

 
 

 

Many teachers have been encouraged by their administrators to download the Literator app but they choose not to use it.

We need to prove to teachers that Literator can improve their work flow that pen and paper can not do for them.

 

 
 

THE PROCESS

DOING OUR HOMEWORK


My team and I met with Jing, the co-founder & CPO of Literator. 

During our meeting, she shared their research that teachers barely have 1:1 meetings with their students. The ideal amount of time to meet with a student is for 2 minutes at least once a week.

 

 

 
 

"SH*T HAPPENS -
TEACHERS WILL MISS THINGS AND MIGHT NOT MEET WITH STUDENTS AS MUCH AS THEY SHOULD - HOW DO YOU DESIGN SOMETHING YOU CAN'T PREDICT?"

Jing Jin, co-founder & CFO of Literator

 
 

 

 

Literator’s hypothesis is that teachers need a scheduling feature in order to schedule 1:1 conferring with students.

Before tackling the challenges and jumping into design sprints, we had to understand education lingo that the app uses.
 

 

THE F&P (FOUNTAS & PINNELL) SYSTEM

The  literacy system that is becoming common core for districts to implement in their school system.

The F&P system consists of questions and rating levels that establishes a students reading level. Every year, the district requires each class to finish at a certain reading level by the end of the school year.

F&P stands for Fountas & Pinnell, last names of two women that examined the literacy learning of thousands of students.

Their studies proved that the most affective way to improve student reading scores is through small group and 1:1 meetings.

 

 
 

 

"STUDENTS JUST WANT YOU TO LISTEN TO THEM,
BE HONEST, AND SHOW THEM THAT YOU CARE."

Ms. Amico, K-6 teacher for 33 years

 

 
 


INTERVIEWING TEACHERS


We created a survey that target teachers that teach grades K-6, literacy and also use the F&P system. We can then synthesize and understand the pain points that teachers have in their classroom.

Some key findings that we discovered were:

  • The F&P test isn’t always accurate because testing is very long and sometimes students don’t want to do it
  • Conferring takes up too much time and requires a teachers undivided attention while taming the chaos of a classroom
  • Easiest way for teachers to confer with students is by grouping them based on their skill levels and needs
  • Within the groups, teachers are able to have students skill swap and help each other succeed
     
 
 

 

"ONCE WE START CONFERRING, THE STUDENT WOULD SAY 'IT IS A BAD DAY' AND WE WOULD TAKE A BREAK.
I WONDER IF THE TEST HAD ACCURATE RESULTS."

Ms. Hofmayer, 3rd grade teacher

 

 
 

 

BEING AWARE OF OTHER SUBJECTS
 

We did a competitive analysis to compare features that other apps have and how we can incorporate it into Literator.

 
 
 
 

Litarator doesn't have direct competitors but there are many apps that teachers and school districts prefer to use.

Teachers use apps that can communicate and share data with parents and administrators.

But the true winner will always be pen & paper with Google Docs coming in close second.

 
 
 

OUR FAVORITE TEACHER
 

Our next goal was to find a way to impact a large group of people at once. We put together an infinity map and matched up common results from our interviews. This allowed us to come up with our persona

 
 

MS.MERRITT

2nd grade teacher
Oakland Unified School District
Teaches Math, Science and Literacy

Pain Points:

  • Remembering F&P prompts
  • Prefers to use pen and paper
  • Groups her students by skills
  • Goes over time during 1:1s with students
Ms.Merritt.JPG
 
 
 

BEING IN MS.MERRITT'S SHOES
 

We drew a storyboard to get a better understanding of what a day in a life of a teacher is like.

Ms. Merritt's day to day consists of being up at 5:30am, getting her first cup of coffee at 6:30am and starting class by 8:30am.

She starts the first hour of her day teaching English where she can start 1:1 sessions with her students.

While she reads the F&P prompts to her student, she listens to her student read, take notes and also makes sure that the class is in order.

When school ends, she begins to input all the notes manually if she hadn't lost them already. 

Now, how do we help Ms.Merritt


 
 

DISCOVERY

OUR INSIGHTS
 

After 10 qualitative interviews with teachers, the results came out to be a lot different than what the initial hypothesis was.

  • Most teachers have students that are behind in their reading levels
  • F&P has only become popular in the recent years and is taking a toll on teachers to adjust to
  • Teachers don't meet with students 1:1 because it's faster to talk to a group of students with the same needs
  • Teachers prefer the flexibility and convenience of using tangible items
  • This leads to carrying binders, folders and mountains of paperwork that eventually accumulates, get lost, and need to be manually inputted

 

 
 

 

"CLASSES WERE ONLY 60 MINUTES LONG AND I WOULD HAVE ABOUT 15 MINUTES TO HAVE 1:1 TIME WITH STUDENTS. SO I WOULD GROUP 5-7 STUDENTS TOGETHER BY SKILL AND TALK TO THEM ALL AT ONCE."

Ms. Catchings, 7th-9th grade literacy teacher

 

 
 


Literator is having difficulty retaining and growing their user base, even though they provide an essential service. Since teachers have been having trouble with keeping notes together and getting through to every student, we added a note feature, a timer and also sorting options. 

 


THE VISION

THE KEY FEATURE

 
 

We added a personalized homepage because teachers teach multiple subjects/classes and may have different rosters. This will allow teachers to switch between classes and be sure of which class they are preparing to confer with. Also, the motivation sun was a good way to remind teachers of their weekly goals and entice them to return to the app and complete their goals.

 
 
 

Adding the sort by feature allows teachers the flexibility to group their students based on their needs. This will help teachers to determine which students to meet with and in which particular order to lessen the time during the planning process. 

 
 

GIVE IT A TRY
 

Follow the steps and confer with the next student near you!

 
 

 

1. Start conferring

2. Ms. Merritt wants to talk to her students based on levels today

3. Looks like Aden needs her help!

4. Ms. Merritt asks Aden to read and summarize and wants to rate that he's doing well

5. Ms. Merritt decides to add a note and move on to next student

 
 

THE AFTERMATH

TAKEAWAYS
 

I learned that communicating with the client is very important. There were features that were going to be implemented on the next sprint that we could have known about early on if we had communicated. 

I also learned that teachers are very very busy people and that we should never underestimate them.

Most importantly, I learned that every sprint does not require a drastic redesign. I felt like we were on top of the world when we got the project. I wanted to change the flow, colors and outlook but stopped when I asked myself "what do teachers need?"

 

 
 

NEXT SPRINT
 

I would like to bring in the concept of tracking, motivation and encouragement. (Like a workout app!) Although we may have added a grouping feature, we can also include a way to motivate current and new users to share data with teachers, parents and students. This can motivate teachers to continue using the app and maintain their goals of improving students literacy levels.

I will also be communicating with the client constantly to inform her of the direction and findings that we have. This is very important because I do not want to miss any business goals or ideas that the client may have that I should be aware of.

 
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Four Seasons Web Redesign


Four Seasons Web Redesign


 

FOUR SEASONS

To encourage third-party users to book directly on the Four Seasons site

 
 

 

Four Seasons noticed 3rd-party services are capitalizing on discounted rates for rooms and would like to compete with them.

3rd-party services will charge a commission fee of roughly 15% -30%. (If a room is $450, the hotel will earn roughly $380) Because of that, hotels will match prices that people find online or they are more inclined to offer people upgrades, better perks or complimentary add-ons. 

 

 

 

"IF YOU FIND LOWER PRICES ELSEWHERE, GENERALLY YOU CAN SUBMIT A CLAIM SO THAT THE HOTEL WILL MATCH THE PRICE."

Gautam Lulla, president of Travel Tripper

 

 


Four Seasons wants to find a solution to averting third-party users to their site.
 

 
 

OVERVIEW

MY ROLE

 

I put together the paper prototypes for testing, built the wireframes also to test and carefully planned out the interaction design. 

CUSTOMER INSIGHT
I partnered with two UX designers with strong research and interview backgrounds to collect and synthesize data to address user needs.

STRATEGY & UNDERSTANDING
I targeted current users and asked questions based on their current pain points that led to ideation and our design decision.

VISUAL DESIGN & IMPLEMENTATION
I created paper prototypes and tested them through Sketch and Invision. I was able to share design ideas and iterate between user testing.

 

 
 

THE CHALLENGE

SWAYING GUESTS


Most people do not know that they can receive an upgrade or discount if they book directly on a hotel site. But what we are having trouble with is establishing the difference between third party sites and official sites and why people choose one or the other. 

 

 

 
 

"SOME HOTEL CHAINS HAVE GONE AS FAR AS TO AUTOMATE THIS [COMPARING PRICE] PROCESS ON THEIR BOOKING ENGINES, SO THAT WHEN TRAVELERS SEARCH FOR DATES, THE SITE WILL AUTOMATICALLY MATCH THE LOWEST PRICE AVAILABLE."

Gautam Lulla, president of Travel Tripper

 
 

 


With this information free for anyone to find on the internet, why is it still uncommon for a person to instinctually book directly with a hotel instead of using third-party sites?

In order to answer that question, we needed to learn about our competitors and what they are doing in order to attract people to book with them.

 
 

THE PROCESS

COMPETITIVE SET


I immediately started a competitive analysis. Not only does Four Seasons compete with third-party sites, they are also competing with five star hotels just like them.

 

 
 

COMPETITIVE ANALYSIS

 

 
 
 
 

We learned that the Four Seasons booking process has the:

  • Fewest steps to checkout
  • Lacking in booking options (such as resorts, cruises, rent-a-car, etc.) 
  • Lacking benefits that are immediate to the users. 

With this information, we wanted to:

  • Add enticing information in the home page to give users a sense of urgency to book
  • Focus on terminology and where to properly place information without giving off that we were "selling" the brand
 
 
 

DISCOVERY

OUR INSIGHTS
 

FROM FOUR SEASONS GUESTS

After the competitive analysis, we wanted to talk to loyal guests at the Four Seasons to learn what they love about the hotel and why they remain loyal no matter where they are in the world.

We learned that loyal members of the Four Seasons are:

  • booking with the hotel directly
  • walking in to request a room without prior booking
  • know that everything will be clean and up to standard
  • know that they will have the best experience staying with the Four Seasons

 

 
 

 

"YOU KNOW YOU'RE GOING TO HAVE A GOOD EXPERIENCE... IT'S THE FOUR SEASONS."

Beverly, Mid-30s

 

 
 

 

FROM THIRD-PARTY USERS

We released a survey and interviewed users to verify our assumptions (price and reviews) and to target users pain points of booking with third-parties. 

People use third-party services for:

  • Price comparison
  • Finding the best deals
  • Read reviews

Pain points of booking with third-parties:

  • No refund
  • Will not change dates without a complaint
  • Does not feel comfortable (quality, service, environment)
  • Most people would not return to the hotel chains they booked with third parties

     
 
 

 

"I USE THIRD-PARTY SITES TO COMPARE PRICES AND REVIEWS. BUT I WOULD ALSO CHECK THE HOTEL SITE FOR PERKS."

Emerson, 27

 

 
 

 

OUR PRIMARY GUEST

With all of the research that we have collected, we synthesized the information and created a persona that will guide us to designing for a large majority of users.

SAM PATEL

  • Sam and Janet are celebrating their 5th anniversary
  • They normally travel 2-3 times a year
  • Enjoys their vacations at hotels or resorts

Pain Points for Sam

  • Overwhelmed by choices
  • Needs reassurance


USER CHALLENGE 

Sam wants to book a hotel for his wedding anniversary for their service, amenities and opportunity to customize their stay.

 

WHAT SAM NEEDS
 

We gave ourselves the chance to come up with the craziest idea possible. This gave me the idea of wristbands or a "magic card" that can allow the freedom for Sam and his wife to access hotel amenities without needing to planning ahead.

This will allow the convenience and customization of the services that Sam and his wife can pick and choose from after checking in.

But we tested and learned that some people want to plan and pay for her trip beforehand.

Here, the idea of the Gold, Diamond and Platinum tiers were born. These are essentially "packages" that Sam can choose during the booking process depending on how extravagant he wants to be. Sam can easily scan and select the amenities he predicts him and his wife would enjoy together.
 


Our hypothesis is that people are not aware of what hotels have to offer. So in order to keep the integrity and class of hotel standards, we created three tiers [Gold, Silver and Platinum] packages in order to attract guests and inform them of what hotels can offer that one can't find when booking on third-party sites.

 


THE VISION

THE KEY FEATURE


We redesigned the Four Seasons e-commerce site by packaging amenities that the Four Seasons offer to guests into the "Gold Standard". This will allow guests to see what amenities they will receive if they book directly. 

 
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We performed usability testing and quickly learned:

  • Users were distracted by the colors and pictures
  • Users focused on missing details and misalignments
  • People didn't understand the packages

We moved forward with:

  • Testing with lower fidelity
  • Adding branding language
    ex: deals vs. exclusive offers
  • Elaborating on the benefits of the packages
     
 
 
 

THE FINAL SOLUTION
 

 
 
 

 
 

CLICKABLE PROTOTYPE
 

 

 
 

THE AFTERMATH

TAKEAWAYS
 

Stay as low fidelity as possible. We spent a lot of time creating a wireframe when we should have focused on interviewing and ideating more solutions to our problem.

I have learned that there is no "shortcut" when it comes to creating the best solution for the user. The most important thing was that we got back on track, ideated and created a solution that benefited the user for the first sprint.

 
 

NEXT SPRINT
 

I would also like to explore the road of creating travel packages for the Four Seasons, where people will be able to plan their experience during their booking process.

 

Honey Creme SF


Honey Creme SF


Honey Creme SF

A Korean/Taiwanese organic soft serve ice cream shop with a  signature honeycomb on top

 

A trendsetting soft serve ice cream

A soft serve ice cream with savory milk flavors that blows your mind with various topping options

 

Honey Creme is a Taiwanese/Korean infused soft serve organic ice cream with a signature honeycomb on top. They have many locations around the world including, Singapore, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, and Australia.

Guess who got to design the first location in America?! (This girl right here)


Overview

Location:
San Francisco, 450 sq. ft.

My Role and Team Members: 
Interior Designer in a team with a Architect, Design Director and client 

My Contributions:
created sketches, iterate designs, conduct interviews, create floor plans, 3D renderings, presented to stakeholders

Tools:
Illustrator, Photoshop, Google Sketch, Artlantis, Revit

Skills:
Research, Sketching, Rapid Prototyping, Iterating


 

Project Background

After acquiring the franchise from Asia, the owners wanted to create a luxury ice cream brand

 

I first had to understand what does "luxury" mean in the ice cream industry?

I studied the Honey Creme brand and learned that their values are to provide guests with the best quality ice cream made with the highest quality ingredients.

That being said, the first Honey Creme store in America needs to appeal to customers as a high quality ice cream store.


Business Problem

Honey Creme needed the perfect location to catch the right audience. They settled with a location in the Sunset District of San Francisco  for the robust community and families that constantly dine and thrive in the area. 

The problem is that the location was previously a retail space and there are city building codes that must be followed in order to convert to a commercial space


 

The Challenge

Building an ice cream shop around building code

 

Did I mention that the space was about 450 sq.ft.? It's about half the size of Jay Z and Beyonce's bathroom.

Our challenge was to fit a 45 sq. ft. toilet room, utilities, plumbing fixtures, prep counter and a check-out counter. 
We were also limited on time due to the high renting prices in San Francisco.


 

Designing in low fidelity

I began to sketch out ideas on how to lay out the space to maximize use
and define a flow for the employees and customers

 

Not to scale

 

The store was previously a jewelry store. So we had to update the store with ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act) requirements. This means that the bathroom, entryway, hallway, and interior space must be accessible to people in wheelchairs and disabilities.

Originally, we thought the bathroom being in the front of the shop would be the most accessible. But it became a concern that people would be eating in front of the store and watch as people enter and exit the restroom.

We decided to move the restroom to the back of the store.

After moving the restroom to the back of the store, we wanted to create walls that would hide the bathroom from peaking out. We played with wall heights to still highlight the ceiling heights.


Our Solution

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We finalized with opening up the space by lowering the walls to 4 feet instead of 8 feet. This allows customers to peer from front of the room to the back. Most importantly, the low walls allow employees to easily see customers walking in and out of the store. 

The controversial toilet room is built in the back to be hidden from customers but still open to the public. 

Lastly, the appliances are sprinkled throughout the store based on priority to limit footprint for the employees. Such as placing the ice cream machine in the front with extra space around it. That's because the ice cream machine releases hot air from the bottom when it is in use for a long time. This might cause heat overload and heat up the employee's feet. (ouch!)